Matplotlib Subplot Spacing

pyplot as plt %matplotlib inline # Define the size of the overall figure fig =…. com The Matplotlib subplot() function can be called to plot two or more plots in one figure. 2-spines_ticks_and_subplot_spacing. The x-tick labels on subplot 334 overlap each > other, and the title of subplot 334 overlaps with the x-tick labels in > subplot 331. In this article, we show how to set the x and the y limit in matplotlib with Python. txt) or read online for free. The following are code examples for showing how to use matplotlib. [SciPy-User] Matplotlib axis label spacing. Jump to ↵ No suggested jump to results. In doing so, only axis labels, tick labels, axes titles and offsetboxes that are anchored to axes are currently considered. The demos are beautiful and impressive, and the APIs are clean and intuitive. imshow ( np. The matplotlib code is conceptually divided into three parts: backends : drawing devices, aka renderers, that transform the frontend representation to hardcopy or a display device (ps, pdf, etc. A commonly asked question on the matplotlib mailing lists is "how do I make a contour plot of my irregularly spaced data?". add_subplot(2,1,1) will return axes to the variable axis1. Bharat Bhole. You can find some good example animations on the matplotlib examples page. Matplotlib是Python中最常用的可视化工具之一,可以非常方便地创建海量类型的2D图表和一些基本的3D图表。本文翻译自Jupyter nbviewer中的第四讲,主要介绍了绘制2D图像的相关信息,图像的位置、大小,曲线的样式、…. Why would you want to use a subplot in Python, instead of just making a new graph? There are a few reasons, most having to do with highlighting the similarities between two graphs. All plotting is done with respect to an Axes. Matplotlib design. They look too close to one another per say. Q: How to create a "master title" at the top of a figure with several subplots? (© Drea Thomas, MathWorks newsletter, June 1995) See the function below. subplots(figsize=(5, 3)) ax. In this recipe, we are going to see how to set an axis range. But, because matplotlib is so well-established in the Python world, it would be nice to be able to continue using it even in the age of browser-based visualization. > > Please find attached an. You can use gridspec to control the spacing between axes. To fully document your MatPlotLib graph, you usually have to resort to labels, annotations, and legends. Matplotlib Set Axis Font Size For example, creating a graph with Matplotlib with axes in scientific notation: it is easy to set the font size of the tick labels, but how can I specify the font size. Subplots in MATLAB ®. You can use gridspec to control the spacing between axes. update(wspace=0. fig, ax = plt. 9 # the right side of the subplots of the figure bottom = 0. I have subplots that come in pairs and then are stacked. import matplotlib. Generate a default filled contour plot of the array Z in the lower left subplot. subplot(m,n,i) breaks the figure window into an m-by-n matrix of small subplots and selects the ithe subplot for the current plot. Note the dtype there - float32. Improve the spacing between the subplots with plt. bar (self, x=None, y=None, **kwargs) [source] ¶ Vertical bar plot. In most cases, a subplot will fit your needs. Here are the examples of the python api matplotlib. Changing the background of a pandas matplotlib graph. import pandas as pd import matplotlib. FontProperties` or dict The font properties of the legend. pyplot as plt fig, axes = plt. If the size of a pie chart is to small then the data is not visible, if the spacing between subplots is not appropriate then the graph will be crammed up. I find subplot_tight to be the easiest to use, since it has a syntax that is closest to the MATLAB function subplot. Seaborn comes with a number of customized themes and a high-level interface for controlling the look of matplotlib figures. The values of Rect leave some space on top and on the left for a title and a legend. size')) fig. If you're following along linearly, then make sure to keep the old code. Here are the examples of the python api matplotlib. An important question when considering whether to use matplotlib for animation is what kind of speed you need. It is designed to work nicely with NumPy arrays, and natively uses two and three-dimensional arrays to represent images, (gray-scale and RGB, respectively). Matplotlib: Area. figure() ax1 = plt. Home > python - Improve subplot size/spacing with many subplots in matplotlib python - Improve subplot size/spacing with many subplots in matplotlib up vote 124 down vote favorite 50 Very similar to this question but with the difference that my figure can be as large as it needs to be. The third arg is the number of the plot starting at 1 in the upper left, going across the top row to M, then down a row and across again, then so on down row by row until the last plot, the (N*M)th, is at the lower right. The code below produces gaps between the subplots. 01) # Grid of 0. import matplotlib. You can omit the parentheses and specify subplot as. For now, we'll start with a clean slate of code. Using a single axis label to annotate multiple subplot axes¶ When using multiple subplots with the same axis units, it is redundant to label each axis individually, and makes the graph overly complex. random (( 100 , 100 )), cmap = plt. Matplotlib Subplot. Posts about matplotlib written by triangleinequality. Usually it has bins, where every bin has a minimum and maximum value. savefig('No_Issue1. For some other Seaborn plot types that include extra statistical calculations such as linear regression, and Pearson correlation, the code reduction is even more dramatic. pi, 100) y = 2 * np. 上例的 subplots(3) 相当于 subplots(3, 1)。 sharex, sharey:轴对齐True,不对齐False,每行对齐”row”,每列对齐”col”。 有些参数可以直接在 subplots 中使用,但其实会进一步传递给其他函数。. get_xlim() to discover what limits Matplotlib has already set. I often use this even when making individual plots, because it returns both a Figure and an Axes object, or an array of axes for multiple. small inserts in larger plots). Subplots Adjust¶ Adjusting the spacing of margins and subplots using subplots_adjust(). How do I remove the gaps between the subplots and make the image a tight grid? import matplotlib. Improve subplot size/spacing with many subplots in matplotlib. I find subplot_tight to be the easiest to use, since it has a syntax that is closest to the MATLAB function subplot. A histogram shows the frequency on the vertical axis and the horizontal axis is another dimension. Controlling spacing between subplots. The vertical_spacing argument is used to control the vertical spacing between rows in the subplot grid. subplots() 是一个实用的命令: nrows, ncols:子图的行数与列数。默认为 1. How to change size of Matplotlib plot Ashwin Uncategorized 2014-10-27 2015-11-24 1 Minute Sometimes you may want to change the width or height or both of the plot figure generated by Matplotlib. add_subplot(111) dat = [0, 1] # Line plot by plot function ax. How to plot left and right axis with matplotlib Posted on April 3, 2012 by Thomas Cokelaer Sometimes, it is convenient to plot 2 data sets that have not the same range within the same plots. The lowest level of these is plt. The matplotlib code is conceptually divided into three parts: the pylab interface is the set of functions provided by matplotlib. ArtistAnimation(). Clicking it will bring up: Each of those blue bars is a slider, which allows you to adjust the padding. set_xticklab. 总结: 数据可视化是一门学问,如何在一张有限的图上清楚有效地展示图片想要说明的信息。一方面,根据想要突出数据的哪方面的信息,选择合适类型的图型;另一方面,给读图的人一种清楚明了的感觉,需要对可视化图的细节——例如排布、字体、字体大小、图例、颜色等等各个方面进行调节。. The plots are numbered along the top row of the figure window, then the second row, and so forth. PS: I would favor this type of approache over 3rd party functions, because it is easy to learn using handles, and then you are really free to design almost whatever you want (e. matplotlib is not the fastest plotting library in the west, and may be too slow for some animation applications. The following are code examples for showing how to use matplotlib. (Not sure if seeking help for matplotlib is appropriate here but I thought I would give it a try; if not, please direct me to somewhere I can get. Learning Python for Data Analysis and Visualization. Hi all, I've searched in examples and archives and could not find anything about manual control of space between bars. Many of the tests I've been running over the past few weeks have generated two sets of data that I've wanted to plot on the same graph. savefig('No_Issue1. The following are code examples for showing how to use matplotlib. subplots_adjust to change the spacing between the subplots. gridspec as gridspec fig = plt. 3, right—O. The values of Rect leave some space on top and on the left for a title and a legend. show() function. add_subplot() is used to control the default spacing of the subplots. The syntax is: plt. Three ways to make a choropleth. They are extracted from open source Python projects. % This is the percent offset from the subplot grid of the plot box. If you are not using Cartesian coordinates and uniform spacing, you may be surprised by the result. 1 added some tools for creating animations which are really slick. Matplotlib 2 Subplots, 1 Colorbar at AllInOneScript. Details: Axes Demo: Example use of plt. subplot(r, c, n) where: r = the number of rows in the grid; c = the number of columns in the grid; n = the number of subplot in the grid. This set of commands import matplotlib as mpl import matplotlib. tight_layout ¶. The most basic element of a matplotlib plot is the figure. OK, I Understand. add axes ( ). The endpoint of the interval can optionally be excluded. Matplotlib - bar,scatter and histogram plots import numpy as np import matplotlib. By default, the bars in the following script overlap. ordering: row-wise, from top left, indexed from 1. The shown method is faster than SUBPLOT, which spends a lot of time with searching for existing AXES at the same position considering rounding errors. You can set the position of the subplots manually. randn(10000) num_bins = 50 # the histogram of the data n, bins, patches = plt. Configure Subplots. subplot() and Matlab's subplot() commands should help make the transition to Python easier. 2 # the amount of width reserved for blank space between subplots hspace = 0. The first elements in each of these color series needs to be ordered from 0 to 1, with arbitrary spacing inbetween. Matplotlib is highly customizable, but it can be hard to know what settings to tweak to achieve an attractive plot. The function subplot create a figure and a set of subplots. 1 added some tools for creating animations which are really slick. The way we will approach the issue of organization is by clarifying the distinction between figures, subplots and axes, and how we can optimize it with matplotlib's gridSpec. if you add a third row, then it causes the axis of the graphs to get. Matplotlib design. Matplotlib has several layers of organisation: first, there's an Figure object, which basically is the window your plot is drawn in. One has to fiddle with pl. Matplotlib uses default settings, which help to create publication quality plots with a minimal amount of settings and tweaking. This section will give several examples of adjusting the tick locations and formatting for the particular plot type you're interested in. However, the ticks are not spaced out enough. You can use gridspec to control the spacing between axes. The demos are beautiful and impressive, and the APIs are clean and intuitive. Because subplot doesn't know about suptitle ("SuperTitle"), you should use this after your subplots are already on screen. 5 in the range from (0,1) , interpolate from below to 1. I use the following:. Matplotlib has so far - in all our previous examples - automatically taken over the task of spacing points on the axis. In this Matplotlib tutorial, we're going to be discussion subplots. Modifying colormaps When displaying a 2-D array with plt. Seaborn comes with a number of customized themes and a high-level interface for controlling the look of matplotlib figures. SubplotParams control the default spacing of the subplots Figure top level container for all plot elements class matplotlib. The function figure. gridspec as gridspec plt. Suppose you have two images: 100x100 and 100x50 that you want to display in a figure with a buffer of 20 pixels (relative to image pixels) between them and a border of 10 pixels all around. Now, let me show you how to handle multiple plots. Explained in simplified parts so you gain the knowledge and a clear understanding of how to add, modify and layout the various components in a plot. Subplots¶ The subplot function of the matplotlib module is a tool for plotting several graphs on a single figure. I recommend the Anaconda python distribution and this package is availably via pypi: pip install brokenaxes Usage. You can easily understand by the following picture: Next, let us understand the area plot or you can also say Stack plot using python matplotlib. The following are code examples for showing how to use matplotlib. In most cases, a subplot will fit your needs. Matplotlib - bar,scatter and histogram plots import numpy as np import matplotlib. In Python's matplotlib library, the function gridspec can be applied to plot subplots of unequal sizes by specifying an overall row and column grid for a figure, then referencing location and size of individual subplots within the figure. 6 Business Use Only # 1) Call figure instance fig = plt. This blog provides the solutions of various coding interview questions hosted at leetcode, interviewbit, geeksforgeeks, ideserve and many others. The third arg is the number of the plot starting at 1 in the upper left, going across the top row to M, then down a row and across again, then so on down row by row until the last plot, the (N*M)th, is at the lower right. GridSpec(4, 4) gs1. subplots with gridspec_kw options are used. add_subplot(2,1,1) will return axes to the variable axis1. 1 >>> import numpy as np. The first subplot is the first column of the first row, the second subplot is the second column of the first row, and so on. org matplotlib. The function figure. seed ( 19680801 ) plt. ax=subplot(221) > >. Code is generated on the fly and python is called. Matplotlib version 1. Judging from the title of the submission, Pekka wrote and shared "Tight Subplot" Customize the spacing of subplots » File Exchange Pick of the Week - MATLAB & Simulink. read_csv (". You can see the arguments for this function are the number of rows that is 2, number of columns that is 1 and figurenumber which varies from n_rows*n_columns that are from 1 to 2. Matplotlib is a popular data visualization package in Python used to design effective plots and graphs. In doing so, only axis labels, tick labels, axes titles and offsetboxes that are anchored to axes are currently considered. Being able to visualize data helps to determine patterns, to communicate results, and is a key component of applied and computational mathematics. In this lab we introduce techniques for visualizing data in 1, 2, and 3. Matplotlib also provides a AxesGrid toolkit to deal with padding and colorbar issues arising from plotting multiple subplots. I have them dynamically build based on how many runs I do (2 subplots side by side per run). txt) or read online for free. xlims and ylims may be datetime. matplotlib - Free download as PDF File (. If you are not using Cartesian coordinates and uniform spacing, you may be surprised by the result. 上例的 subplots(3) 相当于 subplots(3, 1)。 sharex, sharey:轴对齐True,不对齐False,每行对齐”row”,每列对齐”col”。 有些参数可以直接在 subplots 中使用,但其实会进一步传递给其他函数。. So that means that in most cases, Axes and subplot are synonymous, they will designate the same thing. collapse_vertical (combine, others=(), leave_axis=False) [source] ¶ Collapse the vertical spacing between two or more subplots. Ticks are the markers denoting data points on axes. Matplotlib has so far - in all our previous examples - automatically taken over the task of spacing points on the axis. figure ¶ The figure module provides the top-level Artist, the Figure, which contains all the plot elements. Here are the three issues, to be clear: 1) Each subplot is tiny compared to the size of the figure (and, you know what's easily visible). matplotlib配置信息是从配置文件中读取的。在配置文件中可以为matplotlib几乎所有的属性指定永久有效的默认值。 查看配置:你可以通过 matplotlib. Imagine an N by M array of little graphs on your figure. How to create a 3D Terrain with Google Maps and height maps in Photoshop - 3D Map Generator Terrain - Duration: 20:32. It can also fit scipy. This blog provides the solutions of various coding interview questions hosted at leetcode, interviewbit, geeksforgeeks, ideserve and many others. subplot_tight. If you're following along linearly, then make sure to keep the old code. The Matplotlib equivalent is subplots_adjust, although the arguments have a different meaning (ChIPS generally works with the spacing between the plots, referred to as the gap), whereas Matplotlib refers to this as the space between the plots (wspace and hspace) which has a different definition to gap. While it is possible to adjust the spacing between the subplots using subplots_adjust, or use the gridspec functionality for more advanced subplotting, it is often easier to just use the more general add_axes method instead of add_subplot. The following are code examples for showing how to use matplotlib. Matplotlib for Python Developers, Second Edition shows you how to create attractive graphs, charts, and plots using Matplotlib. 1 # the bottom of the subplots of the figure top = 0. The following notebook gives one example of how to make a decent looking chart with filled bathymetric contours using matplotlib - decent being in the eye of the beholder. The first subplot is the first column of the first row, the second subplot is the second column of the first row, and so on. ylabel('Probability') plt. But you can use get(gcf, 'DefaultaxesPosition') as the original SUBPLOT also. As the sizes of the plot elements and. We'll explain the add_subplot method a bit later. set(xlim=(-3, 3), ylim=(-1, 1)) The first line sets up the figure and its axis, and the second line fixes the axis limits. This button allows you to configure various spacing options with your figure and plot. Next in python matplotlib, let's understand how to work with multiple plots. normpdf(bins, mu, sigma) plt. pyplot The result is: This page how to change the space between the lines in legend and their labels. set_xticklab. 9, wspace=0. matplotlib - Free download as PDF File (. Matplotlib's default tick locators and formatters are designed to be generally sufficient in many common situations. In this guide, you will learn about the Matplotlib built-in colormaps as well as creating and customizing them as per your needs. Here is an example that creates a figure with 3 vertically stacked subplots with linked x axes. This page is based on a Jupyter/IPython Notebook: download the original. Matplotlib for Python Developers, Second Edition shows you how to create attractive graphs, charts, and plots using Matplotlib. In this article, we show how to create subplots of graphs in matplotlib with Python. The x-tick labels on subplot 334 overlap each > other, and the title of subplot 334 overlaps with the x-tick labels in > subplot 331. pyplot as plt xvals = np. The following are code examples for showing how to use matplotlib. As a side note, the only datatype that Pillow can work with is uint8. In matplotlib, I want to get a specific tick on the x axis to label a particular value. pyplot as plt import numpy as np # Fixing random state for reproducibility np. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. In Matplotlib, Axes is the primary place where we put plot elements, such as lines, texts and legends. Ever been frustrated with colorbars on your matplotlib plots that just totally mess with the layout of your figure? I plot a lot of image data, much of it in side-by-side comparisons, and the combination of matplotlib's default colorbar behavior and subplots was really getting up my nose. By calling subplot(n,m,k) we subdidive the figure into n rows and m columns and specify that plotting should be done on the subplot number k. matplotlib plotting code examples, 3d plots, 3d errorbars, 2d plots, scientific notation, advanced plotting, plotting tutorial Posts - matplotlib plotting examples and tutorial Search this site. Matplotlib - bar,scatter and histogram plots import numpy as np import matplotlib. The following are code examples for showing how to use matplotlib. In this article, we show how to create subplots of graphs in matplotlib with Python. , appear as a single plot. When you do call subplot to add Axes to your figure, do so with the add_subplots() function. Change the space between labels and lines of the legend in Python Matplotlib. Matplotlib Using matplotlib we can plot different scatter plots, line graphs, bar graphs, pie chart and histograms. subplot() rcParams('ytick. There are two major ways to handle for subplots, which are used to create multiple charts on the same figure. Note that I had to use aspect='auto' and origin=lower for the heatmap. , and figure will then be as wide as necessary to show all subplots at specified size. Matplotlib Subplot. How to create a 3D Terrain with Google Maps and height maps in Photoshop - 3D Map Generator Terrain - Duration: 20:32. The subplot spacing is configured so that they "run into. get_xlim() to discover what limits Matplotlib has already set. Default is True. Its "pylab" interface is similar to the plotting functions of MATLAB®. The `subplot()`_ command specifies ``numrows, numcols, fignum`` where ``fignum`` ranges from 1 to ``numrows*numcols``. On Mar 29, 2007, at 2:49 PM, Iyer wrote: > > Thanks for your response, what I'm trying to find - is a way to > have the whole subplot stop displaying non-data related parts of > it, like when we use the back and forward arrows on the matplotlib > toolbar, the subplot goes off the boundaries and can display as > white space (or the color of the subplot background). tight_layout ¶. 9 # the right side of the subplots of the figure bottom = 0. legend() , it will simply override the first one. Reducing the size of the figure doesn't make the subplots any more easily readable. , and figure will then be as wide as necessary to show all subplots at specified size. At least one sub plot must be created. subplots() 是一个实用的命令: nrows, ncols:子图的行数与列数。默认为 1. Because subplot doesn't know about suptitle ("SuperTitle"), you should use this after your subplots are already on screen. subplot(1,1,1) or clf deletes all axes objects and returns to the default subplot(1,1,1) configuration. They are extracted from open source Python projects. 2 # the amount of width reserved for blank space between subplots hspace = 0. I find subplot_tight to be the easiest to use, since it has a syntax that is closest to the MATLAB function subplot. Installation. subplot(), similar to Matlab’s subplot(). Hello matplotlib-users, I'm using subplots to make an array of plots, but because some of the plots have wider y-axis tick labels than others, some of the subplots end up looking too close to each other. Thus we did not get the internal design right on the first try. % Formula: Space = a + b * n % Increase [b] to increase the space between the diagrams. plot (x, y) ax0. pcolor() , the values of the array are mapped to a corresponding color. Table and Chart Subplots in Python How to create a subplot with tables and charts in Python with Plotly. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. These subplots have titles on top (default position). 0]) and scale ax. However, say we want to narrow into this x range and only show the plot from 0 to 5. The set of colors used is determined by a colormap which smoothly maps values to colors, making it easy to understand the structure of the data at a glance. linspace (start, stop, num=50, endpoint=True, retstep=False, dtype=None, axis=0) [source] ¶ Return evenly spaced numbers over a specified interval. 9 # the right side of the subplots of the figure bottom = 0. How to Set the X and the Y Limit in Matplotlib with Python. The endpoint of the interval can optionally be excluded. Just after plotting it looks great, problem is when I rezise the windows manually. arange(-2, 1, 0. If fig_width_inch set, fixed setting for fixed total figure size in inches. # Tweak spacing to prevent clipping of tick-labels plt. In most cases, a subplot will fit your needs. To combine these plots, plt. Since our ‘response’, the survived column, is categorical or discrete, the easiest kind of plot to read will also be discrete, like bar charts. set_xlim([0. Matplotlib graphics are built step by step by adding new elements. % Formula: Space = a + b * n % Increase [b] to increase the space between the diagrams. figure ¶ The figure module provides the top-level Artist, the Figure, which contains all the plot elements. If you're following along linearly, then make sure to keep the old code. Matplotlib is an external library for Python that is used for 2D plotting. pyplot Create animation of plt. If we want to plot four graphs in one window, then the syntax used should be Subplot(2,1,4). Q: How to create a "master title" at the top of a figure with several subplots? (© Drea Thomas, MathWorks newsletter, June 1995) See the function below. com Matplotlib DataCamp Learn Python for Data Science Interactively Prepare The Data Also see Lists & NumPy Matplotlib is a Python 2D plo ing library which produces publication-quality gures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms. The shown method is faster than SUBPLOT, which spends a lot of time with searching for existing AXES at the same position considering rounding errors. There's more information here. Matplotlib has several layers of organisation: first, there's an Figure object, which basically is the window your plot is drawn in. In one figure but in two subplots. subplot (nrows, ncols, nth_subplot). pyplot as plt fig = plt. (Not sure if seeking help for matplotlib is appropriate here but I thought I would give it a try; if not, please direct me to somewhere I can get. 5) # add a 'best fit' line y = mlab. Hi all, I've searched in examples and archives and could not find anything about manual control of space between bars. Here are the three issues, to be clear: 1) Each subplot is tiny compared to the size of the figure (and, you know what's easily visible). I have a subplot with the grid (1X7). python vertical Improve subplot size/spacing with many subplots in matplotlib. We can follow the same process to cluster and make a dendrogram for the columns:. subplots_adjust. I recommend the Anaconda python distribution and this package is availably via pypi: pip install brokenaxes Usage. The problem is that the values in these two sets are wildly different and can't be put on the same graph at the same scale. This tutorial explains matplotlib's way of making python plot, like scatterplots, bar charts and customize th components like figure, subplots, legend, title. Figure 3: Setting the aspect ratio to be equal and zooming in on the contour plot. shade is a NumPy array of RGBA values for each data point. > > > System: > Ubuntu 10. To combine these plots, plt. The second axis of a 2x2 grid is the upper right axis. py from AA 1import matplotlib. Explained in simplified parts so you gain the knowledge and a clear understanding of how to add, modify and layout the various components in a plot. Matplotlib supports all kind of subplots including 2x1 vertical, 2x1 horizontal or a 2x2 grid. This page is based on a Jupyter/IPython Notebook: download the original. I have them dynamically build based on how many runs I do (2 subplots side by side per run). fig, ax = plt. At least one sub plot must be created. com | Latest informal quiz & solutions at programming language problems and solutions of java,jquery,php. Matplotlib also provides a AxesGrid toolkit to deal with padding and colorbar issues arising from plotting multiple subplots. 1 > I've also tried the Enthought distribution with matplotlib 1. Because subplot doesn't know about suptitle ("SuperTitle"), you should use this after your subplots are already on screen. collapse_vertical (combine, others=(), leave_axis=False) [source] ¶ Collapse the vertical spacing between two or more subplots. 1 ) 一、matplotlib配置. Just after plotting it looks great, problem is when I rezise the windows manually. The vertical_spacing argument is used to control the vertical spacing between rows in the subplot grid. When you do call subplot to add Axes to your figure, do so with the add_subplots() function. if a tuple of matplotlib color args (string, float, rgb, etc), different labels will be plotted in different colors in the order specified; inline: controls whether the underlying contour is removed or not. In this lab we introduce techniques for visualizing data in 1, 2, and 3. figure() # 2) Call subplot ax = fig. However, when the plot is embedded inside another document, typically extra padding is added around and makes the plot look tiny. A visualization of the default matplotlib colormaps is available here. 3, right—O. Its "pylab" interface is similar to the plotting functions of MATLAB®.